Most visitors to Australia are required to obtain a visa to enter the country. There are different types of visa depending on nationality and the intended length of stay (see also www.border.gov.au/Trav/Visa/Appl/Visitor for more information).
Citizens of Brunei, Canada, Hong Kong (SAR of China), Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, United States can enter Australia with an Electronic Travel Authority (subclass 601) visa. This visa costs AUD 20 and the average processing time is less than one day. See www.border.gov.au/Trav/Visa-1/601- for more information and to apply.
Citizens of Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Republic of San Marino, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom – British Citizen, Vatican City (Holy See) can enter Australia with an eVisitor (subclass 651) visa. This visa is free of charge and the average processing time is a few days. See www.border.gov.au/Trav/Visa-1/651- for more information and to apply.
Citizens of all other countries will require a Visitor visa (subclass 600). The base application charge for this visa ranges from AUD 140 to AUD 1020 and the processing times can be up to several weeks. See www.border.gov.au/Trav/Visa-1/600- for more information and to apply.
Sydney has a big international airport (SYD) with direct flights from and to North America (Los Angeles, San Francisco, Dallas, Honolulu , Vancouver), South America (Santiago de Chile), Asia (Japan, China, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, South Korea), Africa (Johannesburg), the Pacific region (New Zealand, Fiji, Vanuatu, Tonga) and the Middle East (Doha, Abu Dhabi, Dubai). All international flights will arrive on terminal 1. From there you can take a train straight to the city centre (www.transportnsw.info, $16.81). Other options include taking a taxi from the taxi stand outside the terminal ($40-$60) or requesting an Uber ($25-$40).